Panorama of Thinkers

Below, a list of thinkers having tackled the European Miracle in a way or in another
by devising their own explanation or discussing other people's.
Per thinker   Per topics


  • The Issue

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  • French

    Jean BAECHLER , French historian, a precursor in states-systems studies.

    Jacques BLAMONT, French physicist, author of Le Chiffre et le Songe.

    Fernand BRAUDEL, the great French master of long-term economic history.

    David COSANDEY (webmaster), Swiss physicist, the Rich States System theory: Western Europe succeeded because it enjoyed a thriving economy and a stable states system. Both were made more probable by the continent's indented coastline.

    Jared DIAMOND.

    André Gunder FRANK, German-American economist, "The West is the Pest", and later "The Rest is the Best" school.

    Charles C. GILLISPIE, American historian of science.

    Jack A. GOLDSTONE, American sociologist

    John A. HALL

    Francis HALLÉ

    Toby HUFF, American historian, the "free-thinking corporation theory".

    David HUME

    Eric L. JONES, English economist, author of The European Miracle and Growth Recurring.

    Paul KENNEDY, American historian.

    Alexandre KOJÈVE


    David S. LANDES, American economic historian, "The West is the Best" school.

    Graeme LANG, British sociologist, the states system theory with geographic base.

    Claude LÉVI-STRAUSS, French philosopher, founder of structuralism.

    William McNEILL, American historian, author of The Rise of the West.

    Joel MOKYR, economist

    Charles de MONTESQUIEU, 18th-century French philosopher.

    Joseph NEEDHAM, British biochemist, the famous pioneer in Chinese science history.

    Alain PEYREFITTE, French politician and historian, proponent of the "trustful society" view.

    Kenneth POMERANZ, historian, the negationist school ("there was no rise of Europe").

    Ziauddin SARDAR, Pakistani computer scientist, "the West is the Pest" school.

    Max WEBER, German sociologist, author of the The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

    Robert G. WESSON, American historian, the superiority of state systems.

    Lynn WHITE

    Karl WITTFOGEL, German-American economist, the "hydraulic civilization" hypothesis.

    Miscellaneous Personalities having shown an interest for the Grand Issue.